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At one point, Gittinger traveled to work with George White to use his test on prostitutes and homosexuals to refine his assessment test to figure out what type of sexual orientation someone likely had, and to figure out who had sexually deviant tendencies. One of Gittinger's colleagues stated that he knew of cases where the Personality Assessment System was used to identify targets for entrapment, both heterosexual and homosexual. One particularly useful application of the Personality Assessment System was to identify people who would be easily hypnotized.
It has likely been used extensively to hand-pick subjects and employees on sensitive projects within and beyond MK-ULTRA, assessing peoples personalities to discover who would retain secrecy and loyalty. Interestingly, Gittinger was familiar enough with his test that he was able to observe someone's behavior and then retroactively apply the attributes to determine their personality type. By observing how a man held his cigarette, handled his alcohol, or interacted with women, Gittinger could profile that person and determine their weaknesses and propensity for exploitation through entrapment or other means.
One logical application of the Personality Assessment System is the ability to assign certain people to a program that required secrecy, by determining how loyal an agent or asset would be to the Agency. In mainstream culture, hypnotism is viewed as a type of 'science fiction', confined to the realm of magic tricks and entertainment.
The truth is that hypnotism is very real and used both in mainstream psychology and in military intelligence. Psychologist Dr. George H. This is a field with which I am familiar through formulating guidelines for the techniques used by the United States in two world wars. Communication in war is always a headache.
Codes can be broken. A professional spy may or may not stay bought. Your own man may have unquestionable loyalty but his judgment is always open to question. I was involved in preparing many subjects for this work during World War II. Captain Smith had undergone months of training. He was an excellent subject but did not realize it.
I had removed from him, by post hypnotic suggestion, all recollection of ever having been hypnotized. First I had the Service Corps call the captain to Washington and tell him they needed a report on the mechanical equipment of Division X headquartered in Tokyo. Smith was ordered to leave by jet next morning, pick up the report and return at once.
These orders were given him in the waking state. Consciously, that was all he knew, and it was the story he gave his wife and friends. Outside of myself, Colonel Brown was the only person who could hypnotize Captain Smith. All that he was aware of was that he must head for Tokyo to pick up the division report. On arrival there, Smith reported to Brown, who hypnotized him with the signal phrase.
Under hypnosis, Smith delivered my message and received one to bring back. Awakened, he was given the division report and returned home by jet. The system is virtually foolproof. No one else could hypnotize him even if they might know the signal phrase He talked communist doctrine and meant it. He was welcomed enthusiastically by communist cells, and was deliberately given a dishonorable discharge by the Corps which was in on the plot and became a card-carrying party member. The joker was Jones B, the second personality, formerly apparent in the conscious Marine.
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Under hypnosis, this Jones had been carefully coached by suggestion. All I had to do was hypnotize the whole man, get in touch with Jones B, the loyal American, and I had a pipeline straight into the Communist camp. It worked beautifully for months with this subject, but the technique backfired. It is pretty shocking to see that Estabrooks was willing to completely destroy the life of a marine by relegating his primary personality to an 'alternate' that would only appear when accessed through hypnosis.
It is more shocking that such an application of hypnotism is even possible. He noted that the potential for military intelligence was nightmarish but felt content that his knowledge was being used for the United States instead of the Nazis or the Russians. Unfortunately, corrupt elements in the United States, namely the CIA, would capitalize on this knowledge for illicit means in the near future.
There are a variety of CIA documents released through the Freedom of Information Act that shed light on their hypnotism activities. It describes an experiment where an unnamed CIA official hypnotized two subjects, both 19 year old women. In an awakened state, they expressed deep disgust in the idea of holding a gun, yet when hypnotized, one was willing to grab it and fire at her peer the gun was unloaded and no one was hurt.
It states: After proper suggestions were made, both were awakened and expressed complete amnesia for the entire sequence. Not only was the CIA officer able to coerce otherwise peaceful subjects into violence, he was able to remove any memories of the event after they 'woke up' from the hypnotism. MK-ULTRA Document reveals that through hypnotic suggestion, one subject was coerced into setting up an incendiary bomb and leaving the device in a bathroom. Throughout, their movements were easy and natural, and bystanders were, to all intents and purposes, completely unaware of what was taking place although they could clearly observe the movements of [redacted] and [redacted].
Estabrooks once noted that only one in five people were susceptible to hypnotism in this manner. True to form, the CIA researched ways to improve to hypnotic susceptibility in their subjects, and found some success by combining techniques with administering drugs. A document titled Continuation of Studies on Hypnosis and Suggestibility states:. Several drugs have been identified that apparently are effective in speeding the induction of a hypnotic state The two cited CIA documents describe the unwitting hypnosis of two young women for the use of experimentation.
What is the possibility that psychopaths would use this knowledge to exploit women sexually? Perhaps the most disturbing CIA document of all is numbered and details a CIA interview with a professional hypnotist who was asked to give an instructional course in hypnotism to CIA agents. It states:. It is nothing short of terrifying to read how interested the CIA was in methods of rape. The fact that this was beyond any application to intelligence is an afterthought. The document finishes by describing how the student of the hypnotism instructor was able to successfully use his newly-learned techniques on new subjects, indicating that hypnotism was able to spread throughout the ranks of the CIA relatively effortlessly.
When Operation Bluebird first began, marking the beginnings of research into hypnosis, one early document revealed a surprising goal:. This raises the distinct and disturbing possibility that the act of hypnotizing agency members for the purpose of altering their behavior became a common practice at the CIA under MK-ULTRA, with the power of what suggestions to induce at the hands of only two psychopathic men.
The available evidence clearly shows that this is a lie. From the documents that survived Director Helm's destruction order, we can already see the potential for a 'Manchurian candidate': a mind controlled assassin. Is it possible that academic research into hypnosis and other organic forms of mind control have been deliberately marginalized from mainstream entertainment, media and academics in order to keep its potential use within a military-industrial complex a secret? Ewen Cameron became the president of the World Psychiatric Association in and also served as presidents of the Canadian and American Psychiatric Associations.
It is important to reiterate that not only does the available evidence of MK-ULTRA comprise a very small portion of the documents that were created, but many of the experiments were never recorded in the first place. The operation was presided over by only two individuals who had a complete knowledge of the operations.
Not even the Director of the CIA had full access. When John F. Ultimately, the goal of MK-ULTRA was not to find the 'holy grail' of mind control but to map out a complete knowledge of human nature and the human mind, and then find ways to exploit it. This was done on both individual and group levels. We have no idea how much was accomplished towards this goal, or how much more developed the mind control research has gotten in the 50 years that have passed since the available documents were last issued.
After all, if this is what the CIA was able to accomplish in the 's, what are they capable of today? What kind of experiments were detailed in the documents that were destroyed after Director Helm's orders? What kind of experiments were never recorded and why did they require such a high level of secrecy? Do any recent instances of terrorism or assassinations sound similar to the documented instances of hypnotically induced susceptibility to carry out acts of violence?
What kind of power does mind control represent in the hands of a psychopath? How widespread was the entrapment program and is it possible that it ended up targeting U. Military leaders? What was the purpose of associating trauma through electro-shock and other means with mind control? What new means of mind control have emerged with new technology?
Theirs is a tale of secret arms caches and exotic code names, of military stratagems and political intrigues. At best, their tale is no more than a curious footnote to the cold war. The question is if, at worst, it could be the key to unsolved terrorism dating back two decades The focus of the inquiry is a clandestine operation code-named Gladio, created decades ago to arm and train resistance fighters in case the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded.
All this week, there have been disclosures of similar organizations in virtually all Western European countries, including those that do not belong to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. How far would the United States go to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe? Especially considering the constant false information provided by Reinhard Gehlen and his Organization indicating that a Soviet invasion was imminent? When the Soviet invasion never happened, these organizations created networks with politicians and within the black market, and turned their goals towards preventing the rise of leftist political movements, often resorting to terrorism to create domestic tension, causing citizens to turn towards increasingly fascist governments to provide protection.
Today, this process is known as the 'Strategy of Tension'. It was Judge Felice Casson who first dredged up the evidence for state sponsored terrorism, while browsing the archives of the Italian military secret service. While this strategy was being implemented, it was necessary to protect those behind it because evidence implicating them was being discovered. Witnesses withheld information to cover right-wing extremists. Casson points to a car bombing in Peteano that killed three paramilitary police and was blamed on leftists, after which Communists were immediately arrested.
He found that there were no police investigations of the scene, and the official report was a forgery. Vinciguerra's testimony reveals that it was easy to escape and remain hidden because everyone in the Italian security apparatus shared his anti-Communist convictions. When ex-Prime Minister Andreotti finally testified in , he revealed that arms and equipment were provided by the CIA and placed in underground caches across the country.
He stated that after the Piazza Fontana bombing in , pieces of a bomb were planted in a leftist editors villa in order to blame the communists. He stated:. Ganser is the eminent authority on Operation Gladio and has done tremendous work in synthesizing the various evidence from nearly a dozen different languages into one source. This book is a must-read to gain a full understanding of Operation Gladio.
Another Gladio hotspot was Turkey. In , a stay-behind army was organized under the codename 'Counter-Guerrilla'. In the car's trunk, police found a forged passport, police identification papers, ammunition, silencers, and machine guns. Abdullah Catli, the fugitive heroin smuggler, had escaped from a Swiss prison. The dead beauty queen, Gonca Uz, was his girlfriend. The police officer was Huseyin Kocadag, head of a Turkish police academy and a former Istanbul deputy police chief who reportedly organized hit squads in the southeast that kill Kurdish guerrillas and their supporters.
The survivor, Sedat Bucak, a member of parliament from the conservative True Path Party, is reportedly in charge of 2, Kurdish mercenaries paid by the government to fight Kurdish guerrillas. The car crash has created a sensation in Turkey and has led parliament to hold hearings on the ties linking the True Path Party, the police, and thugs like Abdullah Catli. Newspapers in Turkey are making connections between what they are calling the "state gang" and a secret paramilitary force that for decades has attacked the left The United States funded these stay-behind groups for decades.
Even though there was no Soviet occupation, some of the groups did take up arms against left-wing dissidents in their own countries. Some descendants of these groups are still at it, especially in Turkey. Abdullah Catli was one of those. Now leader of a small opposition social-democratic party, Ecevit knows a lot about those liaisons. He first told me about them — and the American connection — back in , when I interviewed him in his Ankara office. Bulent Ecevit, five time Turkish prime minister, who is cited in the above quote, declared that the Taksim Square massacre was a Gladio operation, where half a million citizens had rallied.
It was organized by trade unions, and the shooting lasted for 20 minutes while a thousand policemen in attendance did not intervene. About 40 people were killed, and though none of the perpetrators were caught, demonstrators were detained. The massacre occurred during a broader wave of political violence. The U. State Department in its Human Rights report noted that:. Human rights groups reported the widespread and credible belief that a Counter-Guerrilla group associated with the security forces had carried out at least some 'mystery killings'". American journalist Lucy Komisar, when asking U.
There is evidence of Gladio operatives extensively operating torture campaigns for political purposes. For example, Talhat Turhan, former Turkey General, survived torture at the hands of special forces. Much of the violence was directed at the Kurdish minority.
In the Counter-Guerrillas were behind the brutal crackdown that would kill and torture thousands over the next five years. Among other operations, Counter-Guerrillas would dress up as PKK members A Kurdish political party and attacked villages, raping and executing people randomly. The political violence in Turkey, with Gladio operatives responsible to at least a moderate extent, paved the way for the series of military coups that have occurred in the country.
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A New York Times article notes that:. One of Turkey's most prominent pro-Kurdish politicians, Guven Ozata, said the car crash and its aftermath had convinced him that state-sponsored death squads were behind many of the estimated 3, unsolved killings that have been committed in the southeastern part of the country in the last decade. Most of the victims had been suspected of sympathizing with separatist Kurdish causes.
Ozata said at a news conference. It is a reality acknowledged by government officials. Several politicians and others who are calling for investigations into the government's relationship with criminal gangs believe that the gangs used their official ties as cover for involvement in Turkey's lucrative heroin-smuggling trade.
They suspect that senior officials were engaged in the trade or tolerated it as a way of repaying gangs that killed at their behest. The evidence of Gladio operations in Turkey reveal another important link: The collusion between paramilitary forces and drug traffickers. At the time and to this day , Turkey served as a major hub in the smuggling of drugs into Western Europe, from the Southeast Asian 'Golden Triangle' and later the Middle East.
It is likely that drugs served as a significant source of funding for these decentralized operations and was the catalyst for a bond between the state and the criminal underworld that ensured massive corruption in the country that exists to this day. After all, we know that the Gehlen Organization was involved in the black market in the area to raise extra funds for their intelligence operations.
One of the countries that suffered the most from the Cold War terrorism groups was Greece, the country with perhaps the most significant propensity for the rise of a natural leftist coalition. These groups were equipped with automatic weapons and small mountain mortars stashed in underground caches throughout the country. The group was involved with the coup, where leftists were widely reported to have large leads in the polls. As NATO orders were to prevent any type of leftist 'insurgency', the group took over the Greece Defense Ministry, rolled into Athens, took control of communications centers, Parliament, the Royal Palace, and arrested over 10, people, many of whom were tortured.
Although the CIA and NATO have steadfastly refused to acknowledge the existence of Gladio, giving them deniability from ever having to disclose documents related to the operation, the existence of these fascist and violent underground networks has been acknowledged by the governments of nearly every NATO country. Furthermore, official documents in German, Dutch, French and Italian confirming the network, its organization and practices have been declassified. Operation Gladio is not just some ancient history. Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti confirmed that the last coordination meeting he was aware of was held in At the same time the geopolitical strategies of the United States were moving away from Europe and towards the Middle East.
Unfortunately, the available information on Operation Gladio raises more questions than it answers. Knowing that the last acknowledged Gladio meeting was in , can we say with any certainty that the program ever ended? How many people involved with Gladio are still operating in the CIA and other agencies?
Seeing that the 'Strategy of Tension' proved to be an effective tool, in what other instances has it been implemented? Are the criminal alliances that formed during Gladio in places such as Turkey still in effect today? How did the 'stay-behind' organizations affect domestic politics in ways other than terrorism?
Is the ongoing assassination campaign in Iraq, discussed in the chapter 'The War on Terror is a Fraud', a part of an evolved Gladio campaign? We're talking about hundreds of millions of dollars a year just for that The CIA decided to siphon funds to create the Office of Policy Coordination, which would become the covert action branch of the Agency. From the onset, Operation Mockingbird was one of the most sensitive of the CIA's operations, with recruitment of journalists and training of intelligence officers for propaganda purposes usually undertaken by Director Allen Dulles himself or his direct peers.
It is a false belief that the CIA 'infiltrated' unwitting media institutions. The recruitment of journalists was frequently done with complicity from top management and ownership. They were witting. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets.
Carl Bernstein , the reporter famous for his excellent investigation into the Watergate scandal, wrote that:. There was cooperation, accommodation and overlap. Journalists provided a full range of clandestine services—from simple intelligence gathering to serving as go betweens with spies in Communist countries.
Reporters shared their notebooks with the CIA. Editors shared their staffs. Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors without portfolio for their country. Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested in the derring-do of the spy business as in filing articles; and, the smallest category, full-time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad.
While a majority of Mockingbird operations were overseas, the goal was to have important, hard-hitting stories to be circulated in the American press. Relationships with major United States media institutions certainly helped with this goal. They also created front organizations overseas who publicly maintained an appearance of free press but privately were operated by the agency. Another strategy was developing relationships with major media owners who were known to harbor right-wing views, such as William Paley of CBS , and then passing on information of journalists, actors and screenwriters who harbored left-wing views.
Information was also passed on to friendly congressmen such as Joseph McCarthy. These men and women would then be blacklisted from the industry. Lee J. Cobb was one such actor who was blacklisted, and recalled his experience:. The blacklist is just the opening gambit — being deprived of work. Your passport is confiscated. That's minor. But not being able to move without being tailed is something else. After a certain point it grows to implied as well as articulated threats, and people succumb. My wife did, and she was institutionalized. I was pretty much worn down. I had no money.
I couldn't borrow. I had the expenses of taking care of the children. Why am I subjecting my loved ones to this? If it's worth dying for, and I am just as idealistic as the next fellow. But I decided it wasn't worth dying for, and if this gesture was the way of getting out of the penitentiary I'd do it. I had to be employable again. The CIA went as far as to write scripts for Hollywood. One interesting example is the funding of the movie version of Animal Farm in , a book written just less than a decade earlier by George Orwell which enjoyed large commercial success.
The problem for the CIA was that Orwell was a socialist, and his book attacked both capitalism and communism. To avoid this conflict, the CIA changed the ending of the Hollywood version to portray capitalism in a more positive light. Domestic surveillance was also used on journalists who had published classified material. In one example, a physical surveillance post was set up at a Hilton Hotel in view of the office of Washington Post writer Michael Getler.
The operation was directed towards numerous members of the Washington press corp, and was signed off by John F. Influence, by covertly subsidizing foreign publicans or booksellers The Church Committee concluded that over books were published under this directive. Some investigative journalists have claimed that Operation Mockingbird did not end in as the CIA claims.
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For example, in , researcher Steve Kangas claimed that conservative billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife, who ran 'Forum World Features', a foreign news organization, was a CIA asset and used the organization to disseminate propaganda for circulation in the United States. It was ruled a suicide, although there were discrepancies in the police report and the autopsy. The Church Committee's conclusion accurately reflects the problems associated with Operation Mockingbird:. The first is the potential, inherent in covert media operations, for manipulating or incidentally misleading the American public.
The second is the damage to the credibility and independence of a free press which may be caused by covert relationships with the U. While it is deplorable for citizens of countries to be subjected to a state-owned media, at least they can be aware of the biases and filter information accordingly.
We have been taught a lie from birth that the U. In a situation where the manipulation is completely covert, the American public has been left unaware of the propaganda they have been ingesting for decades. April Why were the owners and management of large media institutions so willing to participate in a program that violated their journalistic integrity? Has the increasingly consolidated media industry made it easier for news to be manipulated to fit 'the agenda' discussed in the One Party State?
The FBI's stated motivation was "protecting national security, preventing violence, and maintaining the existing social and political order. They used harassment, wiretapping, psychological warfare, propaganda, and assassinations among other techniques to achieve their goals. At am, the heavily armed police stormed the apartment, killing Panther member Mark Clark immediately, who was serving a security duty. Clark fired his shotgun, the only shot fired by the Panthers that day, while the police and FBI would end up shooting 98 times. The raid team would then assault the room of Fred Hampton, a rising leader in the Panther movement.
Police would fire twice at Hampton, who was lying next to his pregnant girlfriend, hitting his shoulder. Court transcripts revealed the following conversation took place: Bring him out. Two more shots were fired, point blank at Hampton's head. Crime Scene from Fred Hampton's Bedroom. Over a dozen more Panthers residing in the apartment would be wounded, beaten, and then charged with attempted murder of police officers.
The next day, the media largely defended the FBI's actions. The Chicago Tribune published photos showing holes purported to be from bullets fired by the Panthers, but forensics would later reveal these holes to have been made by nails. The FBI had tried other methods before resorting to assassination, including sending a bogus letter to a rival Chicago gang leader in hopes of provoking a violent retaliation which read:. The brothers that run the Panthers blame you for blocking their thing and there's supposed to be a hit out for you.
I'm not a Panther, or a Ranger, just black. From what I see these Panthers are out for themselves, not black people. I think you ought to know what their sic up to, I know what I'd do if I was you. You might here from me again. Why was Fred Hampton targeted? He was a rising leader in the Black Panther Party and was in the process of uniting various gangs, including the Puerto Rican 'Young Lords' and the Caucasian 'Young Patriots' into a political coalition.
He had the potential to drastically change the political landscape of Chicago by channeling the youth unrest that had previously been directed against other gangs and instead direct it at the political establishment to fight against police corruption and to generate socially constructive energies. Edgar Hoover himself, which read: Prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups. The same document also contained another relevant directive: Fred Hampton had the charisma to unite large groups of young men and the attitude of social welfare and community development that had the potential to gain the support of the broader progressive community.
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His assassination prevented his career from escalating to these heights. A truly astounding book that draws heavily on official documents provided by the FBI. A 'must read'. They advocated a 10 point socialist program for black self-determination, provided free food and healthcare to communities, fought against hard drugs, and formed legal armed street patrols to deter violence from the KKK and other antagonistic organizations. They also advocated for community control of police, schools and other institutions. Today, these points are largely ignored in favor of the racist caricature promoted by the Bureau.
The operations the FBI took to subvert the Panthers is truly astounding. For example, there is the Black Panther coloring book, created by the FBI and distributed by Bureau informants to black children in an attempt to marginalize the Party within the black community. The goal was not to influence the children of these communities, but to marginalize the Panthers within the white community. Yet the tumultuous personal quest for office and influence led many aristocrats to seek support among the people, sometimes with radical measures of land reform which Cicero, among others, would resolutely oppose.
He rose to the office of consul and the lifetime Senatorial membership it subsequently conferred by his audacious wit as a lawyer and orator in public prosecutions. His greatest moment as consul in 63 BCE came in exposing a conspiracy by Catiline; the brutal suppression of the conspiracy by executing Roman citizens without trial, however, would tar his political legacy. He became an enemy of Julius Caesar though accepting a pardon from him at the end of a stretch of civil wars in 47 BCE , seeing the assertion of power first by Caesar and then Marc Antony as fatal to the republic.
Having defended in his De officiis the kind of tyrannicide that he took the killing of Caesar in 44 BCE to have constituted, and attacked Antony mercilessly in his series of fourteen Philippics the following year, Cicero was murdered in response by partisans of the then-ruling Triumvirate to which Antony belonged. One was the Bible, and the other was the works of Cicero. While his philosophical writings—composed for the most part as a student of philosophy in Rome and Athens, and then in a brief period 46—44 BCE when political developments led him to retreat from active public life — cover a wide range of topics, including for example, among those especially relevant to politics are two works on the political role of the orator and the nature of oratory or rhetoric, celebrating the moral purposes of the orator as essential to the success of republican government.
In particular, Cicero emphasized the Stoic themes of the natural affinity for society and the existence of natural law. At the same time, Platonic themes and models were also important in his political writings. De re publica was composed by Cicero between 54 and 51 BCE, a turbulent period of strife in Roman politics. Its dramatic setting is in BCE during the crisis caused by Tiberius Gracchus, a consul who had championed a property redistribution law for the people and whom members of the Senate had violently suppressed as a putative threat to Roman civil order.
Framed as a dialogue between Scipio Aemilianus, a hero of the resistance against Tiberius Gracchus and his like-minded brother, and several others of his actual contemporaries, the dialogue has a discernible structure identified by E. It followed too that just as Plato denied the title of a single unified regime to the imperfect regimes torn by civil discord, so Cicero inferred that a corrupt regime was not strictly speaking a res publica at all III.
The role of the statesman rector rei publicae is to aim at the happiness of the citizens, defined in a laxer way than most Greek philosophers would allow, as wealth, true glory, and virtue all combined. This includes rule of the best over the weakest for the benefit of the latter III. The dream describes the divine order which not only rewards humans for just service to their city VI. What fame can you achieve in what men say, or what glory can you achieve that is worth seeking?
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As Jed W. Probably begun after De re publica , it was likewise written in the years immediately before 51 BCE, and similarly survives only in piecemeal and fragmentary form. Such iniquitous laws as those passed by tyrants are not just I. As these prescriptions, and the circumstances of their writing a temporary retreat from active politics , suggest, Cicero had a complex attitude to the Greek dilemma posing the lives of philosophy and of politics as opposed alternatives. He saw philosophy as a source of insight and perspective relevant to politics, but after his early studies, devoted himself to it primarily when temporarily debarred from more active pursuits.
One might say that philosophy became, beyond its intrinsic value, a form of alternative public service when the forum was too dangerous for him to enter here following the reflection along these lines offered by Baraz This dictum of A. Long holds true not only in the sense that for Cicero, as for Plato and Aristotle, ethics was inseparable from politics.
Book I treats what is virtuous, or honestas ; Book II treats what is advantageous, or utilitas ; and Book III considers cases to show that any apparent conflict is illusory. The most difficult case to resolve according to the overall argument of the book is that of advantage when understood as political ambition, driven by greatness of spirit. Similar casuistry enables Cicero to resolve in accordance with his thesis a range of common cases where advantage might be sought at the expense of justice in administering the estate of an orphan, for example, a common duty of eminent Romans.
As in Plato, a redefinition of the virtues plays a crucial role in the overall argument for the benefits of justice. For Cicero, the virtues are Romanized as officia , understood not only as duties in the abstract but rather as obligations of role or relationship, each attaching to someone in virtue of a distinct persona whether as father, consul, neighbor, and so on, or simply as a human being. Four principal virtues are identified: wisdom; justice, resting on fides good faith and credit and respect for property; greatness of spirit; and decorum.
Strikingly, whereas tyrannicide might appear to be a difficult case for such an ethical code to confront, Cicero presents it — writing later in the year that Caesar was assassinated—as the straightforwardly ethically correct choice. His pivotal move is to deny that tyrants are party to the otherwise universal nature of human fellowship.